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The author of this page, and its related pages, has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information herein. Neither Queensborough Community College nor the City University of New York nor its agents and representatives are responsible for the contents of this site. They cannot accept any liability for any loss or damage resulting from the use of the material contained herein. The information is believed to be correct, but no liability can be accepted for any inaccuracies. Unless otherwise indicated, the names of people, institutions, businesses, and organizations mentioned in the assignments or exercises presented in this and the related instructional pages on this website are intended to be fictitious. Any resemblance to actual entities is therefore purely coincidental and not intended.

Neither Queensborough Community College or the City University of New York, the host institution for this instructional web, nor Philip Pecorino, its author, is responsible for the content of any linked site not on a web server of the college nor for the content of any linked sites beyond it. If you choose to leave these pages on this website  for other sites on the World Wide Web, you do so with the understanding that the outside linked sites contain content not endorsed by either the College or Philip Pecorino, and that you have made an informed decision to proceed.


If you are involved in a research effort you should keep in mind that the internet is not yet capable of providing all that is available and all of what you might need or even the most important information that you need.   So you must be aware that the world wide web is both  incomplete and filled with information of highly questionable accuracy.  It is increasing in its volume daily and much of the materials are simply not reliable for inclusion in any serious research.  For some time to come in order to get quality information and reliable information you should and may still have to make use of the resources of a standard physical  library.

If you are writing an essay or term paper for a course, you must still make use of reliable bibliographic research indexes, e.g., The Philosophers' Index , The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature and other such listings . Internet search engines are no substitute for a systematic search of the literature in a standard research index. Moreover, you may still have to "manually" access one or more of your sources.


You must remember to provide the full citation for any materials that you use in your papers and essays and reports. You must identify where the ideas were found and to whom they are properly attributed.  All information on the internet is someone's intellectual property and those who are the originators or authors must be given due credit for the ideas.  This applies to work that you paraphrase as well as for quoted material.  The college has a Academic Integrity program and you do not want to violate the college's code for Academic Integrity and risk receiving a failing grade or dismissal for academic dishonesty.

Instructors now have several means to check on the source of materials submitted by their students.  One of the means to determine if you have plagiarized someone else's content is to use the sophisticated search engines like Google or HotBot or dogpile or deep web searches to scan the Web for questionable or familiar or out of character  phrasings, writing, and organization found in a student's work. Another means are powerful programs that the university provides to instructors that check the works of students against not only the internet but to sites where people pay to obtain the papers.  So the testing for  plagiarism is fairly easily accomplished using these programs and inserting portions of the texts in doubt as to their origin. So if you download or copy and paste someone else's ideas you must identify the sources as completely as possible or the consequences of not doing so could be severe.  Check the College's Academic Integrity information.


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