LEARNING STYLES:
A MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES APPROACH


Learning Theories (database of 50 major theories of learning and instruction). Theory Into Practice (TIP), Greg Kearsley

New Students-New Learning Styles (a rather academic discussion of learning styles with a faculty perspective)

LEARNING STYLES: A MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES APPROACH


Learning styles information

What is your learning style? - University of North Carolina

Self test for learning style from Middle Tennessee State University: http://frank.mtsu.edu/%7estudskl/hd/learn1.html

Self Test (Paragon Learning Style Inventory) : http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html

Warning: Inventories with broken CGI programs are marked with " * ". If the CGI's are still broken, print the page and use a pencil and paper version of the test.

Adult Learning Styles

The Four Dimensions underlying the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) , http://www.gsu.edu/%7edschjb/wwwmbti.html

When you..

Visual

Auditory

Kinesthetic & Tactile

Spell Do you try to see the word? Do you sound out the word or use a phonetic approach? Do you write the word down to find if it feels right?
Talk Do you sparingly but dislike listening for too long? Do you favor words such as see, picture, and imagine? Do you enjoy listening but are impatient to talk? Do you use words such as hear, tune, and think? Do you gesture and use expressive movements? Do you use words such as feel, touch, and hold?
Concentrate Do you become distracted by untidiness or movement? Do you become distracted by sounds or noises? Do you become distracted by activity around you?
Meet someone again Do you forget names but remember faces or remember where you met? Do you forget faces but remember names or remember what you talked about? Do you remember best what you did together?
Contact people on business Do you prefer direct, face-to-face, personal meetings? Do you prefer the telephone? Do you talk with them while walking or participating in an activity?
Read Do you like descriptive scenes or pause to imagine the actions? Do you enjoy dialog and conversation or hear the characters talk? Do you prefer action stories or are not a keen reader?
Do something new at work Do you like to see demonstrations, diagrams, slides, or posters? Do you prefer verbal instructions or talking about it with someone else? Do you prefer to jump right in and try it?
Put something together Do you like at the directions and the picture? Do you ignore the directions and figure it out as you go along?
Need help with a computer application Do you seek out pictures or diagrams? Do you call the help desk, ask a neighbor, or growl at the computer? Do you keep trying to do it or try it on another computer

Adapted from Colin Rose(1987). Accelerated Learning.

The Center for the Study of Learning and Teaching Styles at St. John's University


Learning Styles Bibliography

Agogino, Alice M., and Sherry Hsi. 1995. Learning style based innovations to improve retention of female engineering students in the Synthesis Coalition. In ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education '95: Proceedings. Purdue University. http://fairway.ecn.purdue.edu/asee/fie95/4a2/4a21/4a21.htm

Belenky, Mary Field, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. 1986. Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice and Mind. New York: Basic Books.

Birkey, Richard C., and Joseph J. Rodman. 1995. Adult Learning Styles and Preference for Technology Programs. http://www.nuvhs.org/News/NationalUniversityVirtualHighSchoolLearningStyles.html:National University Research Institute.

Bodi, Sonia. 1988. Critical thinking and bibliographic instruction: the Relationship. Journal of Academic Librarianship 14, no. 3: 150-153.

Cantor, Jeffrey A. 1992. Delivering Instruction to Adult Learners. Toronto: Wall & Emerson. (pp. 35-43.)

Cranton, Patricia. 1992. Working with Adult Learners. Toronto: Wall & Emerson. (pp. 13-15 and 40-63.)

Dewar, Tammy. 1996. Adult Learning Online. http://www.calliopelearning.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Adult-Learning-Online.html

Hartman, Virginia F. 1995. Teaching and learning style preferences: Transitions through technology. VCCA Journal 9, no. 2 Summer: 18-20. Teaching and learning style preferences

Kerka, Sandra. 1993. Women, human development, and learning. ERIC Digest. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. ED 358379.

Knowles, M.S. 1970. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy vs. Pedagogy. New York: Association Press.

Kramer-Koehler, Pamela, Nancy M. Tooney, and Devendra P. Beke. The Use of learning style innovations to improve retention. In ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education '95: Proceedings. Purdue University. http://fairway.ecn.purdue.edu/asee/fie95/4a2/4a22/4a22.htm

Litzinger, Mary Ellen, and Bonnie Osif. 1993. Accommodating diverse learning styles: Designing instruction for electronic information sources. In What is Good Instruction Now? Library Instruction for the 90s. ed. Linda Shirato. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press.

McNeer, Elizabeth J. 1991. Learning theories and library instruction. Journal of Academic Librarianship 17, no. 5: 294-97.

Schroeder, Charles C. 1996. New Students--New Learning Styles. http://www.virtualschool.edu/mon/Academia/KierseyLearningStyles.html

Virtual Classroom. 1996. http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/classroom.html

Wang, Po-Ching. 1996. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences. Penn State Educational Systems Design Home Page: Penn State University. http://www.ed.psu.edu/dept/ae-insys-wfed/INSYS/ESD/Key/Keyschoo/key1.htm

Winters, Elaine. 1995. Seven Styles of Learning: The Part they Play When Developing Interactivity. http://linksprogram.gmu.edu/tutorcorner/NCLC495Readings/Blackmore_LearningStyles.pdf


LEARNING-STYLE INVENTORY

David A. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory describes the way you learn and how you deal with ideas and day-to-day situations in your life.  As this instrument is copyrighted please contact Jinny Flynn at (617) 425-4577 for licensing information.

David Kolb's learning cycle model (Experiential Learning. 1984), the learning style inventory, and associated terminology are based on the work of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, and J. P. Guilford. For more information see the following materials:

Kolb, David A. 1984. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Smith, Donna M., and David A. Kolb. 1986. The User's Guide for the Learning-Style Inventory: A Manual for Teachers and Trainers. McBer & Company. Boston, MA.