Philosophy of Religion
Chapter 9: Religion, Morality and Ethics
Section 4 Religion and Morality as Autonomous
Does a society need to have religion as the basis for morality?
In addition to the mistaken view that morality is inseparable from or impossible without a belief in one or more deities there is also that view which holds that religion and morality are not separable. Contrary to that position is that which holds not only that religion is separable from morality but that they must be separable. There are those who hold that the only real or workable basis for morality is separate from a deity or god or a belief in a god and spiritual realm and separable from religion itself. They go so far as to hold that even the deity or spirits are accountable according to a morality that exists apart from them. Even the deities or the single deity or the "god" are to be held morally accountable. Even the god or gods must follow the moral law.
Three reasons why
There are millions of people who participate in no religion who live moral lives. This indicates that it is possible to live a moral life without participating in any religion. Thus religion is not absolutely necessary to live a moral life.
There are billions of people who make moral decisions without reference to any religious code of morality and without thinking of their religious background or training or rules. There are studies of moral decision making that indicate little or no difference in the moral sensitivity and decision making of religious people as compared to non-religious.
These studies begin to provide empirical support for the idea that like other psychological faculties of the mind, including language and mathematics, we are endowed with a moral faculty that guides our intuitive judgments of right and wrong, interacting in interesting ways with the local culture. These intuitions reflect the outcome of millions of years in which our ancestors have lived as social mammals, and are part of our common inheritance, as much as our opposable thumbs are.
These facts are incompatible with the story of divine creation. Our evolved intuitions do not necessarily give us the right or consistent answers to moral dilemmas. What was good for our ancestors may not be good for human beings as a whole today, let alone for our planet and all the other beings living on it. But insights into the changing moral landscape [e.g., animal rights, abortion, euthanasia, international aid] have not come from religion, but from careful reflection on humanity and what we consider a life well lived. In this respect, it is important for us to be aware of the universal set of moral intuitions so that we can reflect on them and, if we choose, act contrary to them. We can do this without blasphemy, because it is our own nature, not God, that is the source of our species morality...
2. Psychological motivation
Deciding and Acting based on rewards and punishment is a low level of moral development and motivation incapable of sustaining more complex moral reasoning on complex issues involving moral dilemmas. It is described by psychologists as one of the first if not the first sense of morality that children develop about the time they are 18 months to 2 years of age. Most humans develop more complex and socially responsive moral sensibilities related to concern for others by the time they are in their teens.
People making decisions using the principle that "Goodness is its own reward." would appear to be a firmer foundation than for a society to operate with than the principle that people will only be good if they are rewarded for doing so, either in this life or the next. The motivation to act in a morally good manner if rewarded appears to be ineffective in most cases of moral decision making when the rewards for doing the morally correct thing rest on a belief in another life far removed in time and place from the act itself.
3. If a book like the Bible were the only reliable blueprint for human decency that we had, it would be impossible (both practically and logically) to criticize it in moral terms. But it is extraordinarily easy to criticize the morality one finds in the Bible, as most of it is simply odious and incompatible with a civil society.-The Myth of Secular Moral Chaos by Sam Harris see further Biblical Atrocities and also Biblical Vulgarities and Biblical Inconsistencies .
4. If religion were necessary for morality, there should be some evidence that atheists are less moral than believers. -The Myth of Secular Moral Chaos by Sam Harris See material both above and below concerning empirical studies supporting the claim that there is little or no difference in moral thinking and moral behavior of religious and non-religious people. In fact some evidence suggests that a more secularized society may be less violent..
5. If religion really provided the only conceivable objective basis for morality, it should be impossible to posit a nontheistic objective basis for morality. But it is not impossible; it is rather easy. - The Myth of Secular Moral Chaos by Sam Harris See the material on this wherein the various ethical principles as deciphered or invented by philosophers is presented as basis for a secular ethics and morality.
6. Social Factors- Empirical Studies
Empirical studies indicate that religious societies are NOT more moral than those that are more secular in their cast. There are examples of societies and cultures that have moral codes without a belief in a deity and there are efforts to establish a moral order that is not founded on religion. Their efficacy as compared to moral traditions stemming from or dependent upon some religious tradition remains to be determined. However, the secular basis for morality may be more effective in securing social cohesion and non-violent resolutions to conflicts than a morality based on religious beliefs. Here is one study that indicates that secular societies may have less violent crimes.
Less Societal Dysfunction in Secular Societies
Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look by Gregory S. Paul, Baltimore, Maryland Journal of Religion & Society Volume 7 (2005) ISSN 1522-5658 http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/pdf/2005-11.pdf
Large-scale surveys show dramatic declines in
religiosity in favor of secularization in the
Societies worse off "when they have God on their side" By Ruth Gledhill, Religion Correspondent The Times, UK September 27, 2005
RELIGIOUS belief can cause damage to a society, contributing towards high murder rates, abortion, sexual promiscuity and suicide, according to research published today. According to the study, belief in and worship of God are not only unnecessary for a healthy society but may actually contribute to social problems. The study counters the view of believers that religion is necessary to provide the moral and ethical foundations of a healthy society.
It compares the social performance of relatively secular countries, such as Britain, with the US, where the majority believes in a creator rather than the theory of evolution. Many conservative evangelicals in the US consider Darwinism to be a social evil, believing that it inspires atheism and amorality. Many liberal Christians and believers of other faiths hold that religious belief is socially beneficial, believing that it helps to lower rates of violent crime, murder, suicide, sexual promiscuity and abortion. The benefits of religious belief to a society have been described as its "spiritual capital". But the study claims that the devotion of many in the US may actually contribute to its ills.
The paper, published in the Journal of Religion and Society, a US academic journal, reports: "Many Americans agree that their churchgoing nation is an exceptional, God-blessed, shining city on the hill that stands as an impressive example for an increasingly sceptical world.
"In general, higher rates of belief in and worship of a creator correlate with higher rates of homicide, juvenile and early adult mortality, STD infection rates, teen pregnancy and abortion in the prosperous democracies.
"The United States is almost always the most dysfunctional of the developing democracies, sometimes spectacularly so."
Gregory Paul, the author of the study and a social scientist, used data from the International Social Survey Programme, Gallup and other research bodies to reach his conclusions. He compared social indicators such as murder rates, abortion, suicide and teenage pregnancy. The study concluded that the US was the world's only prosperous democracy where murder rates were still high, and that the least devout nations were the least dysfunctional. Mr Paul said that rates of gonorrhoea in adolescents in the US were up to 300 times higher than in less devout democratic countries. The US also suffered from "uniquely high" adolescent and adult syphilis infection rates, and adolescent abortion rates, the study suggested.
Mr Paul said: "The study shows that England, despite the social ills it has, is actually performing a good deal better than the USA in most indicators, even though it is now a much less religious nation than America."
He said that the disparity was even greater when the US was compared with other countries, including France, Japan and the Scandinavian countries. These nations had been the most successful in reducing murder rates, early mortality, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion, he added.
Mr Paul delayed releasing the study until now because
of Hurricane Katrina. He
said that the evidence accumulated by a number of different
studies suggested that religion might actually contribute to social ills.
"I suspect that Europeans are increasingly repelled by the poor societal
He said that most Western nations would become more religious only if the theory of evolution could be overturned and the existence of God scientifically proven. Likewise, the theory of evolution would not enjoy majority support in the US unless there was a marked decline in religious belief, Mr Paul said.
"The non-religious, pro-evolution democracies contradict the dictum that a society cannot enjoy good conditions unless most citizens ardently believe in a moral creator.
"The widely held fear that a Godless citizenry must experience societal disaster is therefore refuted."
There is a moral sense quiz by the Primate Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Harvard University that provides data in support of claims that religion is not needed for morality. Take the quiz yourself at http://moral.wjh.harvard.edu/
Does morality require a deity or god? Perhaps not - see article by Theodore Schick, Jr at
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© Copyright Philip A. Pecorino 2001. All Rights reserved.
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