Computers and Ethics


Law: Free Speech and Censorship

Intellectual Property


Secrecy and Security

Crime and Misbehavior

Information Technology  Accountability

Computing and Information Technology as Professions and Professional Codes

Social Change

Political Change

Artificial Intelligence: Computers and Being Human

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

General Information/Links:



Academic Resources



Coming into the Country  John Perry Barlow

Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age  

When people lived in homes such as seen at PBS: The 1900 House (2000)

The prediction and warning of the future came in Fritz Lang Film: Metropolis (1926) watch excerpts


History of Computing Overall


The Modern History of Computing

Virtual Museum of Computing    This virtual museum includes an eclectic collection of World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks connected with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits available both locally and around the world.

Charles Babbage Institute: Center for the History of Information Technology
"The Charles Babbage Institute is an historical archives and research center of the University of Minnesota. CBI is dedicated to promoting the study of the history of information technology and information processing and their impacts on society. CBI preserves relevant historical documentation in all media, conducts and fosters research in history and archival methods, offers graduate fellowships, and sponsors symposia, conferences, and publications."

A History of Computers This is a computer-history site with much information and many links to other resources.

Virginia Tech History of Computing Web Site  "This collection of materials relating to the history of computing is provided courtesy of the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech and is sponsored in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation (CDA-9312611) – a rich and rewarding resource!"

“Triumph of the Nerds”   a web site associated with the PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) TV series on the history of computing entitled “The Triumph of the Nerds.”

Elsop History of Computing Links
This is the Electronic Software Publishing Corporation’s (Elsop) links page for the History of Computing.

Elsop History of Computer Companies Links
This is the Electronic Software Publishing Corporation’s (Elsop) links page for the History of Computer Companies.

A History of Computers   This is a computer-history site

A History of Information Technology and Systems


Computers and Ethics


Computer Ethics

What is Computer Ethics? – James H. Moor

A Very Short History of Computer Ethics – Terrell Ward Bynum

Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 

Norbert Wiener’s Foundation of Computer Ethics – Terrell Ward Bynum

A Discipline in its Infancy – Terrell Ward Bynum


Information Ethics: On the Philosophical Foundation of Computer Ethics Luciano Floridi, version 2.0

Computing and Moral Responsibility  Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

ETHICS IN COMPUTING  Edward F. Gehringer, North Carolina State University,



Wired Magazine

The Electronic Frontier Foundation

“Computing, Ethics and Social Responsibility: A Bibliography”  by Tavani, H. T.

A Short Webliography on Computer Ethics for Philosophers Luciano.Floridi

Philosophy and Computing  A Webliography   Luciano Floridi

Philosophy and Computing  A Webliography


Philosophy and Computing A Webliography  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Luciano Floridi

A Short Reading List on the Philosophy of Computer Ethics by Luciano.Floridi

"What is Computer Ethics?" James H. Moore (Cyberethics, 23-32)

"Narrative vs. Logical Reasoning in Computer Ethics," John M. Artz (Cyberethics, 73-79)

"Computer Ethics and Moral Methodology" Jeroen van den Hoven (Cyberethics, 80-93) 

"Philosophy: What can you do with it? What can you do without it!" Julie Van Camp:

The ETHICOMP Journal

SOCIETIES and Organizations

Australian Institute of Computer Ethics

Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility

Research Center on Computing & Society, Southern Connecticut State University, USA

Computer Incident Advisory Capability (at U.S. Department of Energy)

CYBERETHICS  Association for Information Systems

Principia Cybernetica





Moral Decision Making -- An Analysis, By Chris MacDonald

Values and Ethics

Inseparability of the Technical, the Social and the Ethical

ETHICS WORKSHEET  by Robert N. Barger 

by Robert N. Barger

Can Ethics Be Taught? by Robert N. Barger



SOCIETIES and Organizations

ETHICS UPDATES Lawrence Hinman,  University of San Diego,

THE ETHICS CONNECTION The Ethics Connection at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics,

Applied Ethics Resources on the WWW   lists of WWW sites which may be of interest to people doing research in the various branches of applied ethics. Note that these lists are not limited to sites about applied ethics.

Starting Points in Applied Ethics  Some suggested starting points for doing research in various branches of applied ethics

St James Ethics Centre St James Ethics Centre is a fully independent not-for-profit organisation which provides a non-judgemental forum for the promotion and exploration of ethics. This website at features a large number of ethics-related articles on diverse subjects, a discussion forum, and a news section, along with information about our work.



Law: Free Speech and Censorship


The Constitution in Cyberspace," Laurence H. Tribe

Freedom of Expression ACLU

Readings on Computer Communications and Freedom of Expression

The Internet Censorship Saga: 1994-1997

Banning newsgroups at CMU in 1994
The Great Cyberporn Scare of 1995
The Communications Decency Act of 1996

Communications Decency Act CDA  TEXT

Reno v. ACLU, 1997 (CDA unconstitutional)

ACLU v. Reno III (Third Circuit, 2001)

Commission on Online Protection Act  Commission Report, Executive Summary    

Children's Privacy Legislation (USA).


What Things Regulate Speech:CDA 2.0 vs. Filtering  Lawrence Lessig Concerning matters of security of information and freedom of expression

James Boyle, Foucault in Cyberspace:  Surveillance, Sovereignty, and Hardwired Censors, 66 U. Cin. L. Rev. 177 (1997) (Lexis-Nexis)   

First Amendment - background

Schenck v. U.S., 249 U.S. 47 (1919)
Abrams v. U.S., 250 U.S. 616 (1919)
Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357 (1927)
Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969)
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation, 438 U.S. 726 (1978)
Sable Communications v. FCC, 492 U.S. 115 (1989)
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964)
Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323 (1974) 

UMKC E-Commerce Tax Policy Project Information about taxes on E-Commerce both domestically and internationally

Children's Access to the Web


SOCIETIES and Organizations

Electronic Frontier Foundation. John Perry Barlow is a retired Wyoming cattle rancher, a former lyricist for the Grateful Dead, and co-founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Since May of 1998, he has been a Fellow at Harvard Law School's Berkman Center for Internet and Society   His manifesto, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace has been widely distributed on the Net and can be found on more than 20, 000 sites. Partly as a consequence of that, he was called "the Thomas Jefferson of Cyberspace" by Yahoo Internet Life Magazine back when such cyber-hyperbole was fashionable.

Electronic Frontier Canada (gopher)

Electronic Privacy Information Center  EPIC

Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia

F.A.C.T.Net Inc. (a non-profit Internet digest, news service, library, dialogue center, and archive dedicated to the promotion and defense of international free thought, free speech, and privacy rights)



COURSE  MIT 6.805/6.806/STS085: Ethics and Law on the Electronic Frontier Privacy and Transparency


Intellectual Property


Readings on Information and Intellectual Property MIT Open Source

Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 1998

Coming into the Country  John Perry Barlow

Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age  

The Economy of Ideas: Rethinking Property in the Digital Age  John Perry Barlow

Proprietary Rights in Computer Software: Individual and Policy Issues – Deborah G. Johnson

Softward Ownership and Natural Rights Volkman, R.

The Virtues of Software Ownership – David H. Carey

A Plea for Casual Copying – Helen Nissenbaum

The Ownership of Ideas in Computing Software – John W. Snapper

Why Software Should Be Free: A Free Software Foundation Paper – Richard Stallman

Anarchism Triumphant:  Free Software and the Death of Copyright  Eben Moglen

Open Source Initiative 

The Cathedral and the Bazaar” Raymond, E. on the open source movement

Against User Interface Copyright – The League for Programming Freedom

Against Software Patents – The League for Programming Freedom

Track Report: Software Ownership – David H. Carey

 Brief introduction to copyright  Brad Templeton,

Ten Copyright Myths Brad Templeton,

A Politics of Intellectual Property James Boyle,

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY A. COPYRIGHT 3. DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYRIGHT ACT a) ANTI-CIRCUMVENTION PROVISIONS: RealNetworks, Inc. v. Streambox, Inc. & Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes (2001)(Lexis-Nexis) - Eddan Elizafon Katz,  History of DMCA and cases decided

Intellectual Property Online: Patent, Trademark, Copyright” Archive Electronic Frontier Foundation

Is Code Speech? Brief of Amici Curiae in MPAA v. 2600 (DVD case)

DCMA  Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 1998 

DVD Copy Control Assn. v. Bunner (6th App. Dist. Ca., Nov. 1, 2001)(overturning injunction against publication based on UTSA)
Universal City Studios v. Reimerdes (2d Cir., Nov. 28, 2001)(upholding injunction against publication of DeCSS code based on DMCA)
Gallery of CSS Descramblers

Digital Copyright Act Harms Research Richard M. Smith, Argues that DMCA allows copyright owners to define their own level of protection, violating fair use.


Complaint against Sklyarov  

 Jail Time in the Digital Age by Lawrence Lessig


Patently Absurd.  James Gleick. New York Times magazine. Sunday, March 12,

Anti-piracy effort-promoting  whistle blowing and informing on pirates BSA
The League for Programming Freedom
The Software Patent Institute
Concepts of Property and the Biotechnology Debate Thompson,
Shelly Warwick, Is Copyright Ethical? An Examination of the Theories, Laws and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States
Justifying Intellectual Property Hettinger,  (JSTOR)
 Trade Secrets and the Justification of Intellectual Property: A Comment on Hettinger,  Lynn Sharp Paine, 20 PHIL. & PUB. AFF. 247, 251-52 (1991)(JSTOR)
The Right to Read Richard Stallings,
Intellectual Property Issues from Negativland
The Electronic Commons Paul Starr,
Encryption, Source Code, and the First Amendment  Robert Post  (distinguishes use of source code to convey ideas to an audience vs. use of source code to run a computer; encryption as potentially protected speech)
The Limits in Open Code:  Regulatory Standards and the Future of the Net , Lawrence Lessig,
The Economy of Ideas, John Perry Barlow, , Wired, Mar. 1994.
Junger v. Daley (6th Cir. 2000) 209 F.3d 481 (DeCSS; source code is speech)

Illegal Art  Celebrating art and ideas on the legal fringes of intellectual property.

FAQ - Intellectual Property Law Web Server  Series of categorized overviews provided by the law firm of Oppedahl & Larson.

Intellectual Property Law Server General information on patent, trademark, and copyright law, including links, forums, legal services directory, and publication of articles.

Copyfight   News stories about the politics of intellectual property.

lawgirl  Interactive legal resource for those in the arts and entertainment field. Features a legal question and answer board and interactive copyright registration pages.

Intellectual Property Data Collections   Provides access to IP data collections hosted by WIPO, with access to other sites that provide IP data.

Intellectual Property: Copyrights, Trademarks & Patents  Information and links to resources.

Free Trade Area for the Americas  Paper offering a consumer perspective on proposals as they relate to rules regarding intellectual property.

Intellectual Property and Technology Forum  Articles, news and discussion of intellectual property issues.

Our Culture: Our Future Report,  Report on Australian indigenous cultural and intellectual property rights.

Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Information Includes definitions, links, and more.

Japan IP Resources Provides updated information on events and issues in the areas of Japanese intellectual property including patents, trademarks, designs, and

Telecommunications and Intellectual Property Law  Links to communications, copyright, and trademark law.

redPatent  Offers Innobook idea protection software, and provides industry news, sample legal agreements, and other resources. Information on intellectual property which includes terminology, laws, organizations, actual court cases, and copyright.


Lawrence Lessig,  "Intellectual property"

Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace

Andrew L. Shapiro, The Control Revolution How the Internet is Putting Individuals in Charge and Changing the World We Know

Richard Stim. Intellectual Property: Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights. Albany, New York: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing, 1994.

Selling Wine without Bottles John Perry Barlow,

ony v. Betamax, 464 U.S. 417 (1984)

White-Smith Music Publ’g Co. v. Apollo Co., 209 U.S. 1, 18-20 (1908) (Holmes, J., concurring).

Copyright Act of Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 320, 33 Stat. 1075

"Wild, Wild Web," Mike Godwin (Cyberethics, 215-221)
"Should Computer Programs Be Owned?" Deborah G. Johnson (Cyberethics, 222-235)
Lotus Development Corp. v. Borland International

"Mind over Matter," James V. DeLong (Cyberethics, 236-242)
"Protecting Intellectual Property in Cyberspace," J.C. Davis (Cyberethics, 243-256)
Gottschalk v. Benson
Diamond v. Diehr (

SOCIETIES and Organizations

World Intellectual Property Organization

Electronic Frontier Foundation 





Demonstration of snooping by computer  The CDT Privacy Demonstration Page.

ACLU Surveillance Campaign  How bad can it get?  Almost there?

Towards a Theory of Privacy in the Information Age – James H. Moor

Private Life in Cyberspace by John Perry Barlow 

"The Right to Privacy" (1890)  Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis,
Technology and Ethics: Privacy in the Workplace A speech by Laura P. Hartman
Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C. § 552a
Discussion on Openness - Foresight Institute
Floridians Mock Cop Cams

Net Decency & Sexuality links on Backflip 

The Virtual Panopticon. Describes a virtual panopticon constructed in the Internet-standard Virtual Reality Mark-up Language (VRML) and contains some background information on Jeremy Bentham's original vision.

Escaping the Panopticon: Protecting Data Privacy in the Information Age. A student paper from Georgia State University College of Law.

Surveillance and the Electronic Panopticon. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Information Technology and Public Sector Corruption. Corruption is a major problem for many parts of the public sector. One dominant vision of corruption restraint - the panoptic vision - sees information technology (IT) as a key enabler of management control.

An Examination of Surveillance Technology and the Implications for Privacy and Related Issues. This paper takes a critical look at the often murky intersection of law, technology and information.

The role of information systems personnel in the provision for privacy and data protection in organisations and within information systems  by Richard Howley, Simon Rogerson, N Ben Fairweather, Lawrence Pratchett  Abstract - Full Paper  The ETHICOMP Journal Vol. 1 No. 1, published: 2004-02-02 


The Right to Privacy.  Ellen Alderman and Caroline Kennedy

Ben Franklin's Web Site:  Privacy and Curiosity from Plymouth Rock to the Internet, Smith, Robert Ellis,

"Little Brother Is Watching You," Miriam Schulman (Cyberethics, 155-161)
"The Demise of Privacy in a Private World," Gary Gumpert and Susan J. Drucker (Cyberethics, 171-187) "Privacy and the Computer," Lucas D. Introna (Cyberethics, 188-199)
Dept. of Justice v. Reporters Comm. for Freedom of the Press (Ethical Issues, 160-161) "The Erosion of Privacy," Marie A. Wright and John S. Kakalik (Cyberethics, 162-170)
Whalen v. Roe

SOCIETIES and Organizations

Privacy International (PI) is a human rights group formed in 1990 as a watchdog on surveillance and privacy invasions by governments and corporations

F.A.C.T.Net Inc. (a non-profit Internet digest, news service, library, dialogue center, and archive dedicated to the promotion and defense of international free thought, free speech, and privacy rights)

Privacy Journal

News on privacy Wired - Privacy Matters

The Electronic Privacy Information Center

The Center for Democracy and Technology

The Information Commissioner of the United Kingdom

The Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner, Australia

Privacy International

Privacy Foundation

Federal Communications Commision FCC

Federal Trade Commission FTC

Electronic Frontier Foundation 

Electronic Frontier Foundation 's Blue Ribbon Campaign

Center for Democracy and Technology CDT

FCC: Parents, Kids & Communications

FTC: Kidz Privacy



Secrecy and Security


Readings on Encryption and National Security-MIT Open Source

 Privacy, Security, Crypto, and Surveillance Archive. by The Electronic Frontier Foundation

A Plain Text on Crypto Policy   John Perry Barlow 1993 

Why I Wrote PGP Pretty Good Privacy encryption program Philip Zimmerman,

Interview with Philip Zimmerman after 9/11 attacks

m-o-o-t is a free open-source computer system that boots from a CD and contains all the cryptographic code needed to defeat GAK (Government Access to Keys) laws. We believe that people should and can have access to electronic privacy even from their Governments.


Digital signature

Click Here to become an Arms Trafficker Now you can just click on a web page to export 3lines of text for an encryption program and become an International Arms Trafficker!
Encryption Special Report An explanation of the issues underlying the debate over encryption policy. Includes background, key stories, legislative update and profiles of key players, from the Washington Post.
Applied Cryptography Export Case A page on my battle to export a disk containing the verbatim source code from the book Applied Cryptography



SOCIETIES and Organizations

Ethical, Social and Professional Issues in the Undergraduate Currriculum   CERIAS: The Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security This site has several useful sections:  * A Framework for Integrating Ethical and Values-Based Instruction into the ACM Computing Curricula 2001  Learning and Teaching with Case Studies
Authoring Guidelines

Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) at Purdue University, Eugene H. Spafford, Director

Computer Security Group, Cambridge University, UK

Computer Security Institute

Computer Security Research Center, London School of Economics

The Risks Digest: Forum On Risks To The Public In Computers And Related Systems, ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, Peter G. Neumann, Moderator

Encryption Policy Resource Page

Internet Privacy Coalition EPIC  Contains articles, reports, and government policies relating to encryption and privacy on the Internet.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Development Effort  Developing a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) that specifies an encryption algorithm(s) capable of protecting sensitive government information.
FIPS 46-2 - Data Encryption Standard (DES) Description of the standard.



Crime and Misbehavior


Readings on Computer Crime  MIT Open Source

Crime and Puzzlement: Desperados of the DataSphere   John Perry Barlow, 

Part 1 crime_and_puzzlement    Part 2 crime_and_puzzlement

"Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry," U.S. Dept. of Justice
A case of cyberstalking

Parasitic computing 

Parasitic Computing?  Albert-Laszlo Baraba si, Vincent W. Freeh, Hawoong Jeong & Jay B. Brockman

Alternate location for article on parasitic computing -text only

The Ethics of  Parasitic Computing: Fair use or Abuse of TCP/IP Over the  INTERNET? Robert N. Barger   

Fraud Precautions R Barger 

"Ethical Web Agents" by David Eichmann

"Ethics of WWW Site Engineering" (by Chris MacDonald, as appearing in the July 1995 Computer Mediated Communication Magazine)

"The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier," by Bruce Sterling

Concerning Hackers Who Break into Computer Systems  by Dorothy E. Denning
"Keys to the Kingdom", a CyberWire Dispatch by Brock N. Meeks (about so-called "blocking software")

"Netizens: On the History and Impact of Usenet and the Internet" by Michael Hauben and Ronda Hauben

"Networking on the Net: Professionalism, Ethics And Courtesy On The Net," by Claire Belilos

"The Power of Google," by Christina Buu-Hoan

"Toward an Ethics and Etiquette for Electronic Mail", by Norman Z. Shapiro and Robert H. Anderson

Web Spoofing: An Internet Con Game, by Edward W. Felten, Dirk Balfanz, Drew Dean, and Dan S. Wallach

Essay on computer viruses and worms, Dr. R. Standler,PhD (Physics, 1977), Attorney Specializing in Computer Law

Essay that surveys computer crime:Dr. R. Standler,

Practical hints for users on how to avoid computer crimeDr. R. Standler,

Essay on how to recognize hoaxes about computer viruses  Dr. R. Standler,


Peter J. Denning (editor), Computers Under Attack: Intruders, Worms, and Viruses, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.

Katie Hafner and John Markoff, Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.

Tsutomu Shimomura and John Markoff, Take-Down: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick,  New York: Hyperion, 1996.

Clifford Stoll, The Cuckoo’s Egg
Clifford Stoll, High-Tech Heretic

United States v. Morris
United States v. Alkhabaz
Arizona v. Evans

SOCIETIES and Organizations



Information Technology  Accountability


Computing and Moral Responsibility

The role of information systems personnel in the provision for privacy and data protection in organisations and within information systems by Richard Howley, Simon Rogerson, N Ben Fairweather, Lawrence Pratchett  Abstract - Full Paper  The ETHICOMP Journal Vol. 1 No. 1, published: 2004-02-02 Open Access Journal -free subscription/access.

Third Party Defamation Liability for ISP

ISP and Bulletin Board Responsibility



SOCIETIES and Organizations

CYBERETHICS  Founder-Editor: David Vance 

International Center for Informational Ethics (ICIE)   An academic web site on information ethics. It is a platform for exchanging information about worldwide teaching and research in our field. It gives the opportunity to meet each other. It provides news on ongoing activities by different kinds of organizations.

International Society for Ethics and Information Technology (INSEIT)   Produces a newsletter and co-sponsors conferences including The Conference of Computer Ethics (CEPE) and the Annual Ethics and Technology Conference

PFIR: "People for Internet Responsibility"

Cyber Angels ("Internet Safety Organization")

Internet Society, The

LoGIC (The Legal Group for the Internet in Canada)



Computing and Information Technology as Professions and Professional Codes


Professional Ethics


Professional Responsibility

Unintentional Power in the Design of Computing Systems – Chuck Huff

Informatic and Professional Responsibility – Donald Gotterbarn

 The Ethics of Software Development Project Management – Simon Rogerson

Professionalism in Computing: Digital Library - Jan Lee at Virginia Tech Contains the Professionalism in Computing course Web, the "digital library" portion that provides access to the special topics pertinent to the studies of the responsibilities and expectations of a computer scientist

The Ethics of Web Site Engineering - Chris MacDonald  A paper on the the ethics of Web Site Engineering

Licensing of Programmers and Software Engineers

Voluntary Professional Codes

Codes of Ethics on the World Wide Web

International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, a code of ethics

ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

IEEE Code of Ethics   IEE an organization of computer professionals. Founded in 1946, it is the largest of the 39 societies of the IEEE.


Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice   A joint ACM/IEEE Computer Society effort

ACM Position Papers on Software Engineering and Licensing


Codes of Ethics links on the web site of the Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility
Commentary on Codes of Ethics or Conduct

"Computer Ethics: Codes, Commandments, and Quandries," Julie Van Camp 

Commentary on “The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics” by N. Ben Fairweather

Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at IIT   


SOCIETIES and Organizations

The Association for Computing Machinery

The Australian Computer Society

The British Computer Society

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility

Professional Accountability Section of the Website of the Online Ethics Center

Professionalism Section of the Website of the Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility

The Software Engineering Ethics Research Institute SEERI  at East Tennessee State University at Johnson City, TN, USA
 Don Gotterbarn, East Tennessee State University  Promotes the development of ethical and professional practices that address the impacts of software engineering and related technologies on society, through research, education, and consultation with individuals, organizations and governments.



Social Change


The Information Revolution and Social Change

Cyberspace and the American Dream: a Magna Carter for the Knowledge Age-  Ms. Esther Dyson; Mr. George Gilder; Dr. George Keyworth; and Dr. Alvin Toffler

Beyond the Information Revolution by Peter Drucker

We Are the Web  by Kevin Kelly

Where We Have Come To (Part 1) (Steve Talbott)     On Kevin Kelly's "We Are the Web"

The Promise and Peril of the Third Wave by Carl Davidson, Ivan Handler and Jerry Harris

Information Society Links Impact of IT and IN

The Alvin Toffler Archive at Wired   War and Anti-WarCultures in conflict with the Digital Revolution

lectures on the information society by Daniel Chandler and Ewan Sutherland


New Village – “Leapfrogging the Grid”   on a Micro Scale   Terrell Ward Bynum

Economics of Computing and Monopolies and Pricing and Access Issues -Terrel Ward Bynum

The Cyber Rights Working Group, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility

The Global Culture of Digital Technology and Its Ethics,” an abstract of a paper by Krystyna Gorniak-Kocikowska

Impact CS Project  Social and Ethical Impact of Computing

Technological Determinism and Social Choice

Engagement with media: Shaping and Being Shaped by Daniel Chandler

Technological or Media Determinism by Daniel Chandler.

Computer Based Information Systems and Managers' Work  Kimble

Determinism (Wikipedia)

Technological Determinism (Principia Cybernetica)

Technological Questions and Issues (Trinity Church of England School)

Social Aspects of Technology and Science (Records of course meetings at UC San Diego)

What is the Social Shaping of Technology? -
Robin Williams and David Edge review research that addresses 'the social shaping of technology.

Technological Futures and Determinisms Robinson: (2001

Technological Determinism of Marshall McLuhan - Slide show by Whittenburg/Shedletsky from University of Southern Maine

Marshall McLuhan Meets William Gibson in "Cyberspace"'  Michael E. Doherty in the Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine.

Internet and Community

I'm Glad the Net `Corrodes' My Culture Marcelo Rinesi,

Who Are We Without Our Technologies? Muktha Jost,

Does the Internet Strengthen Community?  William A. Galston,

 How About a Moratorium on Internet Surveys?  Steve Talbott,

Internet and Society:  Preliminary Report Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society, I(February 2000)
Online Communities: Networks That Nurture Long-Distance Relationships and Local Ties Pew Internet and American Life Project, (October 2001) (read summary of findings)

NetFuture: Technology and Human Responsibility   It seeks especially to address those deep levels at which we half-consciously shape technology and are shaped by it.

Virtual Reality

Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a Guide for the Arts and Humanities edited by Kate Fernie and Julian D. Richards



SOCIETIES and Organizations

The Internet Society – an international organization for global cooperation

UNESCO’s Info-Ethics Program, The United Nations



Political Change


The Information Revolution and Human Values  by Terrell Ward Bynum  Abstract - Full Paper  The ETHICOMP Journal Vol. 1 No. 1, published: 2004-02-02

Internet and Impact on Life and Political Ideas

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace  by John Perry Barlow

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace    by John Perry Barlow

Coming into the Country  by John Perry Barlow

Is There a There in Cyberspace? by John Perry Barlow

The Virtual Community   by  Howard Rheingold

Democracy and its values:  Autonomy- Privacy

 the shape of politics and democracy in the 'age of the internet'

 Democracy and Network Interconnectivity   Christopher R. Kedzie,  RAND

Using Email and FaxModems as Tools for Social Change by Carl Davidson, Networking for Democracy.

A Journal of Cybernetic Revolution, Sustainable Socialism & Radical Democracy: Issue #1, July 1994

A Journal of Cybernetic Revolution, Sustainable Socialism & Radical Democracy: Issue #2, March 1995

A Journal of Cybernetic Revolution, Sustainable Socialism & Radical Democracy: Issue #3, September 1995

A Journal of Cybernetic Revolution, Sustainable Socialism and Radical Democracy

Access Issues

Digital Divide-economic-racial-sexual divides

Access Denied: Information Policy and the Limits of Liberalism by Grant Kester

Digital Divide Links - University of Illinois Online  Collection of articles about digital divide

Falling through the Net (summary, 2000), 4th installment of the Dept of Commerce's Digital Divide reports "Spanning the International Digital Divide"

World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)

Geneva Declaration of Principles (especially Section B10) Declaration of Principles: Building the Information Society: a global challenge in the new Millennium

Issues resulting from the WSIS Results CSPR



Internet: "Far-reaching Instrument of Development and Peace" by Archbishop John Foley, president of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications, at the U.N. World Summit on the Information Society 

Regulation of the Internet


Commons and Code Lawrence Lessig

The Constitution in Cyberspace (Laurence Tribe, 1991)

And How Shall the Net Be Governed? David R. Johnson and David G. Post,

International  Global Information Ethics

Institute for Global Ethics   nonsectarian, nonpartisan, global research and educational membership organization. Promotes ethical behavior in individuals, institutions, and nations through research, public discourse, and practical action

History of the Internet

Hobbes’ Internet Timeline   [Copyright © 1993–2003 by Robert H. Zakon]  This is a rich and useful timeline on the history of the Internet, with many links to other related materials.

Nerds 2.0.1 – A Brief History of the Internet   This is a web site associated with the PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) TV series on the history of the Internet entitled “Nerds 2.0.1 – A Brief History of the Internet.”

A Brief History of the Internet  In this history, which appears on the web site of the Internet Society, several of the people involved in the development and evolution of the Internet share their views of its origins and history.

[Very, Very] Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks  This is a sketch of Internet history by Vint Cerf. It also appears on the web site of the Internet Society.

Law:  General

The Law of the Horse: What Cyberlaw Might Teach Larry Lessig,
How to Govern Cyberspace: Frontier Justice or Legal Precedent?


The Cyber Rights Working Group, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
The Global Culture of Digital Technology and Its Ethics,” an abstract of a paper by Krystyna Gorniak-Kocikowska
The Internet Society – an international organization for global cooperation
UNESCO’s Info-Ethics Program, The United NationsThe Vatican Pontifical Council for Social Communications paper "Ethics in Internet"

Some useful places to look information from the Institute for Development Policy and Management at The University of Manchester

Knowledge Facts, Knowledge Fiction
What happens when corporate knowledge management monoculture meets the diverse international development sector? This paper finds that development agencies have too readily adopted approaches from the Northern corporate sector that are inappropriate to development needs.

North-South inequalities
Chapter 3 of Education Now: Break the Cycle of Poverty by Oxfam

Exclusion and Poverty in Developing Countries
by Alice N. Sindzingre, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, France

Inequality in women's access to and participation in all communications systems
This is part of a "Draft Platform for Action" drawn up by the Fourth World Conference on Women hosted by the United Nations in Beijing, China in September 1995.

Information Communication Technologies for women's equality: Access and Empowerment issues - an NGO perspective
By Sarita Ranchod, Women'sNet Project Manager

Forsaken Geographies: Cyberspace and the New World 'Other'
From poet, artist and art historian Olu Oguibe.

Technology vs. Human Development: Brazil, 1996
From Brazilian journalist Mario Ibraim Salimon.

Public access to the Internet: American Indian and Native Alaskan issues
A historical and sociological discussion by George Baldwin about emerging networks used by American Indian people and tribal organizations.

Electronic Journal for Information Systems In Developing Countries
which emerged from IFIP 9.4 - dedicated to research and action in the social issues of informatics in the Third World.

Internet Governanceat CSPR  Internet governance encompasses a wide range of issues and organizations relating to the governing, financing and control of the Internet and its protocols. CPSR has been involved in Internet Governance issues for years, including current participation in the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) process and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)


SOCIETIES and Organizations



Artificial Intelligence: Computers and Being Human


General AI

Artificial Intelligence: A Light Approach  references by Luciano Floridi  sections on

General Resources
The Philosophy of AI
Turing and His Test
Testing and Debugging
Genetic Algorithms
Computer Chess and Draughts/Checkers
Fuzzy Logic
Neural Networks
Parallel Computing
(Computational) Complexity
Quantum Computing
Expert Systems, Knowledge Engineering and Formal Ontologies
Robotics, Cybernetics and Artificial Agents
Artificial Life

Minds and Machines  Major Resource site by Peter Suber

What is Artificial Intelligence? An essay by John McCarthy, a founder of the field.

Cognitive Science, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Artificial Intelligence, from Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1993.

Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence   Resources  by  Selmer Bringsjord

Chess Is Too Easy. An essay by Selmer Bringsjord.

Computing, Machinery, and Intelligence. Alan Turing's classic essay.

Conscious Machines. An essay by Marvin Minsky.

Daniel Dennett's Online Papers

Minds, Machines, and Gödel. An essay by J.R. Lucas.

Philosophy and Cognitive Science. An essay by Serge Sharoff.

Technological Singularity. An essay by Vernor Vinge. Ignore the preface by John Klett.

Thinking Computers and Virtual Persons. A new anthology of essays on AI (and against Searle's Chinese Room argument), edited by Eric Dietrich. The site contains a table of contents and abstracts of the essays.

Net Future Articles on AI


Watch video (recommended) or read transcript of the listed presentations from 2000 conference, Will Spiritual Robots Replace Humanity by 2100?

01. Douglas Hofstadter   Professor of Cognitive Science at Indiana, Author, Gödel, Escher, Bach

02. Ray Kurzweil    Author, The Age of Spiritual Machines.

03. Bill Joy   Co-Founder, Chief Scientist, Sun Microsystems

04. Hans Moravec  (from 7:01 to end)   Pioneer of mobile robot research, Author, Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind.

05. John Holland   Inventor of genetic algorithms, artificial-life pioneer; Professor of CS and Psychology at the U. of Michigan.

06. Kevin Kelly   Editor-At-Large, Wired, Author, Out of Control, a study of bio-technological hybrids. 

07. Frank Drake  Chairman of the Board of Trustees, SETI Institute 

08. Ralph Merkle   Principal Fellow, Zyvex, LLC, Recipient, 1998 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology for Theoretical Work

09. John Koza  Consulting Professor (Medical Informatics), Stanford University. Inventor of genetic programming.

10. Panel Discussion 

11.  Audience Q&A   

Online papers on consciousness
The Structure of Cognition
Consciousness and Common Sense
SCIENCE'S LAST FRONTIERS: Consciousness, Life and Meaning
Godel's Theorems
Peter Suber, "Gödel's Proof"
Searle's Chinese Box
Peek at new book: ROBOT by Hans Moravec
Kismet:  A Sociable Robot
Starlogo: Programmable modelling environment
Kismet:  A Sociable Robot

 The Singularity Vernor Vinge, "Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended."

The Law of Accelerating Returns Raymond Kurzweil,

"What Are We Thinking About?" Shirley Turkle:  (2000)

Why the future doesn't need us. Bill Joy,  Wired 8.04, April 2000


Assimilation of the Machine  Mumford(1934)

Posthumanization and Cyberspace

There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom (1959)  Richard Feynman,


Nanotech's Dark Side Debated in the Aftershock of Sept. 11
National Nanotechnology Initiative

Sense of Self and Cyber space and AI

Cyberspace and the world we live Body and Society -

Cybersociety: computer-mediated communication and community.

Psychology of Cyberspace - Gender Swapping and Psychology of Cyberspace - Psychology of Avatars from John Suler

Computers and the Communication of Gender by Elizabeth Lane Lawley

Technologies of the Self  by Alan Aycock

Identity and Deception in the Virtual Community by Judith Donath

 Identity and the Cyborg Body Chapter Three of Elizabeth Reid's thesis Cultural Formations in Text-Based Virtual Realities

Construction of the Discourse of Virtual Reality, 1984-1992   Colonizing Virtual Reality -

Will the Real Body Please Stand Up? by Rosanne Stone

Searle's Chinese Room Argument against Strong-AI


Bibliographies on Artificial Intelligence

SOCIETIES and Organizations

OFAI Library Information System Biblio, searchable database containing data on books, research papers, conference papers, journal articles from many subareas of Artificial Intelligence. 

American Association for Artificial Intelligence.

MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

Artificial Intelligence Research Laboratory at Iowa State University.



Dictionaries and Encylopedias

A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names

Vaughn Dictionary of Philosophical Terms

Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

Glossary of Terms in Ethics

Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems

Merriam Webster Dictionary  

Stanford Philosophy Encyclopedia

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Catholic Encyclopedia

Encyclopedia Brittanica

Encarta Encyclopedia


General Information /Links

Hippias: Limited Area Search of Philosophy on the Internet (Univ. of Evansville)

Noesis: Philosophical Research Online (Univ. of Evansville)  

Computer Ethics

IEEE Ethics Committee

Engineering Ethics

Computer Ethics

Information Systems Ethics(Cyberethics)Discussion

Science and Engineering Ethics

Managing Ethics in Organizations - Bentley College

Australian Computer Society

Economic, Legal and Social Implications Committee (ELSIC)

Ethics on the Web

Small Business Administration site on the Y2K problem

CPSR site on on the Y2K problem

World Wide Web Consortium site

The Recreational Software Advisory Council

Professionalism in Computing: Digital Library - Jan Lee at Virginia Tech

Computer Ethics Map - Ed Gehringer

Computer Science Unplugged

Ethical, Social and Professional Issues in the Undergraduate Currriculum

International Center for Informational Ethics (ICIE)

International Society for Ethics and Information Technology (INSEIT)

Business Person's Guide to Ethical Search Engine Optimisation .

Interactive Computer Ethics Explorer (ICCE) Explanation - Walter Manor

Ethics Cases - Dr. Robert N. Barger, Notre Dame

ImpactCS Project

Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice

Software Engineering Ethics Research Institute (SEERI) - Don Gotterbarn, East Tennessee State University

Ethics and Computing - Kevin Bowyer, University of Notre Dame

Institute for Global Ethics

Applied Ethics Resources on the WWW

Starting Points in Applied Ethics

The Ethics of Web Site Engineering - Chris MacDonald

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)

ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society (SIGCAS)

UMKC E-Commerce Tax Policy Project

An automated privacy statement generator from OECD

NECC99 Conference Site






Academic Resources

DOLCE develops Web-based materials for teaching computer ethics 

Computing Cases

Ethics and Computing - Kevin Bowyer, University of Notre Dame The field of "Ethics and Computing" encompasses a lot of territory. Courses in this area may be taught in programs such as Information Systems, Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Electrical Engineering. Material in this area may be taught as a stand-alone course and/or as modules in courses throughout the curriculum. Whatever teaching responsibility you have related to this area, the materials here should help you to teach ethics and computing in a way that provides rigorous, relevant and effective learning experiences for your students.

Terry Bynum 



Herman Tavani's Bibliography of Computing, Ethics, and Social Responsibility   5 main parts-14 sections 48 subsections  more than 2,000 entries: books, journal articles, reports, conference proceedings, doctoral dissertations, professional papers,  newspaper articles, and video programs

Johnson, Deborah , Computer Ethics, 3rd ed (Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001)

Hester, D. Micah & Paul J. Ford, eds  Computers and Ethics in the Cyberage (Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001)

Baase,Sara, A Gift of Fire. 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2003)

Robert M. Baird, Reagan Ramsower, Stuart E. Rosembaum editors, Cyberethics: Social & Moral Issues in the Computer Age, (Prometheus Books, 2000).

Halbert, Terry & Elaine Ingulli  CyberEthics (2002)

Bynum, T. W. “Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview”

Julie Van Camp , editor, Ethical Issues in the Courts: A Companion to Philosophical Ethics, (Wadsworth Publishers, 2000).

CCSR Publications  Resources - including:

ETHICOMP Paper, The Internet

CCSR Publications - including: CCSR Responses to Consultations, ETHIcol

Equality - including: Disability, Education, Gender Issues, Information Poverty, Intellectual Property Rights

General - including: Broader Coverage of Computing and Social Responsibility, Computer Ethics as a Discipline, European Union, Teaching, UK Government, UK Government Consultations, USA Government

Privacy - including: Biometrics, CCTV, Data Protection, Empolyee Monitoring, Encryption, Identity Cards/Smart Cards, Identity Theft, Security, Spam/Unsolicited Commercial Emails, Viruses and Hoaxes, Website Privacy Policies

Professionalism - including: Accuracy of Data and Information, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Business Ethics, Codes of Ethics, Ethics and Education, Ethics in General, Medical Systems, Millennium Bug, Professional Responsibility, Software Development, Web Ethics

Remote Activities - including: Cyperspace, Electronic Commerce, Electronic Government, Democracy and Voting, Electronic Voting, Telework, Virtual Communities