Multicultural Teaching: Bibliography
"Diversity: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography" by R. Neill Johnson. http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/divbib.htm
Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action (Elizabeth S. Anderson, University of Michigan) http://www.personal.umich.edu/%7eeandersn/biblio.htm
Articles of Interest to Multicultural Faculty Developers. http://www.crlt.umich.edu/multiteaching/bib-other.html
Approaching Diversity: Classroom Strategies
Promoting Diversity in College Classrooms
Maurianne Adams, Editor New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 1992, Vol. 52
Curtis, M.S.; Herrington, A.J. Diversity in Required Writing Courses.
Today's challenge, for students and teachers of writing alike, is to construct a social identity on which we can all agree amid a growing confluence of identities, both individual and ethnic. The objective of teaching writing, the authors state, is for writers to be able to move confidently and thoughtfully through private meaning-making to significant communication with others. In this chapter, the authors describe a multicultural Basic Writing course that they designed, which included significant books by writers from outside of the Anglo American canon. Basic Writing was designed to be more inclusive and student-centered; student writing was the principal activity and student writings the principal texts. The authors comment that in exploring the multicultural content of the works studied, they became conscious of their own interpretive processes, and it was these processes, rather than the interpretations, that they meant to pass on to students.
Hardiman, R.; Jackson, B. Racial Identity Development: Understanding Racial Dynamics in College Classrooms and on Campus.
In recent years, higher education has seen a shift in the evolution of approaches to social diversity on campus. Instead of expecting students from underrepresented social groups to conform to preexisting college norms, faculty and administrators now seem to be open to new perspectives and expectations that these students bring with them to the campus and classroom. Educators are trying to understand how each group views the world as a function of its experiences with social injustice and the influence of cultural orientation. In this syntheses of their work on racial identity development, the authors outline five stages that describe predominant modes of consciousness or worldviews that Black and Whites go through in developing their identities. The authors write that understanding the racial identity development of Black and White Americans assists educators in making informed responses to challenging racial dynamics on college campuses.
Hunt, J.A. Monoculturalism to multiculturalism: Lessons from Three Public Universities.
Comparison of the experiences of three public universities in the northeast and midwest in changing from monocultural to multicultural campuses suggests intrinsic barriers to change and common elements in organizational and curricular development. Lessons were learned for organizational administration and governance, college environment, and faculty development.
Marchesani, L.; Adams, M. Dynamics of Diversity in the Teaching-Learning Process: A Faculty Development Model for Analysis and Action.
This chapter describes a four-part model of the dynamics of teaching and learning that have particular relevance to social and cultural diversity in college classrooms: (1) Students: knowing one' s students and understanding the ways that students from various social and cultural backgrounds experience the college classroom. (2) Instructor: knowing oneself as a person with a prior history of academic socialization interacting with a social and cultural background and learned beliefs. (3) Course content: creating a curriculum that incorporates diverse social and cultural perspectives. (4) Teaching methods: developing a broad repertoire of teaching methods to address learning styles of students from different social backgrounds. This model can be used by teachers as a framework, organizer, and diagnostic tool for classroom experience. It can also be used as a framework for faculty development workshops, as well as help manage the extensive new literature about multiculturalism in higher education.
Noronha, J. International and Multicultural Education: Unrelated Adversaries or Successful Partners?
This chapter examines fundamental differences between the fields of international and multicultural education. Even with the development of ethnic studies in the 1970s, international education continued to be the accepted and familiar approach to diversity. The author states that this is not surprising, given that international and multicultural education are seen as separate and unrelated to each other. She suggests, however, that there are significant commonalities for cross-fertilization and collaboration. Effective, high-quality teaching for a diverse population, she states, operates on the same principles as good teaching practice for all students. The author outlines several successful strategies in teaching and working with multicultural and international students.
Schmitz. B. Cultural Pluralism and Core Curricula .
Across the country, faculty members are redefining core knowledge and skills to include learning about U.S. pluralism and world cultures and experimenting with new pedagogical approaches that engage cultural multiplicity in effective ways. These changes have not gone uncontested, however. In this chapter, the author explores institutional and conceptual issues central to addressing cultural pluralism in the core curriculum and describes practices that have proved useful to faculty members developing or revising courses or planning new curricula. Some of the curricular solutions that the author describes include: multiple centers, which allow different groups and traditions to occupy the center of attention for specific times, to be studied on their own terms; and new pedagogies (such as feminist and black studies pedagogies) that seek to build on experiences familiar to specific student populations.
Weinstein, G.; Obear, K. Bias Issues in the Classroom: Encounters with the Teaching Self .
Handling intergroup bias issues in the classroom may stimulate instructor anxiety but also provides opportunities for self-understanding. This chapter describes some commonly shared fears that faculty have about intergroup bias issues. These include: confronting their own social and cultural identity conflicts; having to confront or being confronted by their own bias; responding to biased comments; having doubts and ambivalence about their own competency in handling bias issues; needing learner approval; and, handling intense emotions and losing control. An instructor's ability and willingness to anticipate and monitor her or his intrapersonal dynamics about the teaching situation is a necessary component of classroom preparation. The authors offer some coping strategies and summarize personal attributes of the effective cross-cultural trainer that can be generalized to any teaching role.
Anderson, James A. Cognitive Styles and Multicultural Populations. Journal of Teacher Education. 1988; 38: pp. 1-8.
Differentiates between western and nonwestern worldviews and field-dependent and field-independent learning styles and how they relate to writing styles, classroom learning, and communication.
Bean, Martha S.; Kumaravadivelu, B.; Lowenberg, Peter H. Students as Experts: Tapping the cultural and linguistic diversity of the classroom. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching. 1995; 6(2): 99-112.
The challenges of the increasingly diverse U.S. college classroom may at first seem problematic. However, when educators become aware of the broad range of cultural and linguistic behaviors that can inform their particular classroom culture, areas in which students are expert, they can not only defuse incipient tensions but also experience such diversity as a rich resource for alternative models of teaching and learning. The dynamics of the culturally diverse classroom are outlined, and strategies are proposed for reducing miscommunication and expanding understanding of different educational practices and varieties of English that may emerge in the classroom.
Brown, Brenda Gabioud. Pedagogical Reality. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. 1994 Mar.
Academics remain deeply uncertain and divided about their role as practitioners of multiculturalism, inclusion and diversity. As teachers of writing, academics try to offer their students the freedom to express themselves, but they continue to puzzle over how they are to integrate and achieve true inclusion in the classroom. A series of informal interviews with college faculty documents more specifically the nature of the troubling confusion. Five main questions were asked, which revealed the following results. First, among faculty there is little consensus about what the terms multiculturalism, inclusion, and diversity mean. Of the respondents, 40% thought that the terms were interchangeable. Second, all the respondents agreed that racism and sexism continue to exist among the student populations but on a less overt level than in previous decades. Some faculty interviewed expressed a reluctance to respond directly to racism or sexism in the classroom; they prefer to stay neutral in classroom situations. Third, most faculty do not see signs of overt racism in the composition classroom probably because students recognize that it is politically incorrect. Fourth, 53% denied having seen any discrimination on the administrative level. Fifth, faculty rely primarily on their reading lists to further the goals of multiculturalism, inclusion, and diversity. (TB).
Butler , Johnnella; Schmitz, Betty. Ethnic Studies, Women ? s Studies, and Multiculturalism. Change. 1992 Jan; 24: 36-41.
Part of a cover story on multicultural education. The growth of ethnic studies and women ? s studies should be greeted with both enthusiasm and caution. The positive part of this trend includes the supplying of courses and faculty members for newly established "diversity requirements" and the establishment of faculty development programs aimed at re-educating scholars. A more painful part of the growth of ethnic and women's studies involves the difficulty of establishing programs of integrity and scholarly credibility. The writers address the evolution and impact of ethnic and women' s studies, misconceptions about the purposes of these disciplines, and the provision of leadership for multicultural initiatives.
Dey, Eric L.; Hurtado, Sylvia. Faculty Attitudes Toward Regulating Speech on College Campuses. The Review of Higher Education. 1996 Sep; 20: 15 -32.
This article reports findings from a study based on data collected by Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA including information on the ways in which institutional priorities and institutional climate influence faculty attitudes toward academic freedom. Faculty at institutions that were student centered or that emphasized a social change perspective were more likely to support some limitations on speech. Faculty at institutions that placed a high priority on diversity were less likely to be inclined to ban extreme speakers than faculty from other institutional climates.
DiLorenzo, Thomas M.; Heppner, P. Paul. The Role of an Academic Department in Promoting Faculty Development: Recognizing Diversity and Leading to Excellence. Journal of Counseling and Development. 1994 May; 72: 485-91.
While this article does not address diversity or multicultural education, it provides a good overview of faculty careers and the role of departments in promoting faculty development.
Gabelnick, Faith. Educating a Committed Citizenry. Change. 1997 Jan; 29: 30-5.
The challenge of educating a committed citizenry is to alter the societal and university paradigm. This paradigm shift lies in epistemological questions about who we are and how we shall live our lives with others. In contemplating skills necessary to engage as active, responsible citizens, it is important to think in both individual and institutional terms. Students require skills in leadership and multicultural awareness and for participatory community projects, faculty need particular skills to foster these competencies throughout the curriculum, and educational institutions must support faculty development, cross-departmental collaboration, special programming, and external communities it wants to nurture. The writer discusses efforts aimed at preparing new, committed leaders for the 21 st century.
Hilliard, A. Teachers and Cultural Styles in a Pluralistic Society. NEA Today. 1989: pp. 65-69.
Discusses the issue of the possible relationship between culture and learning style and the implications for teaching. Situated in an elementary-secondary context, but applicable to higher education.
Hofstede, G. Cultural Difference in Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1986; 10: pp. 301-320.
Looks at differences based on culturally mixed and unequal status relationships such as teacher-student in the college classroom. Builds a four-dimensional model of cultural differences that can help understand the basis of communication differences.
Kadi, Joanna. Stupidity Deconstructed. In Thinking Class. 1996; Boston , MA : South End Press.
The chapter addresses the role of class privilege and elitism in colleges and universities from the perspective of a working class academic. The author explores and challenges the ways in which intellectual worthiness and competence are linked with class.
Kee, Arnold Madison; Mahoney, James R. Multicultural Strategies for Community Colleges. AACC Publications, P.O. Box 311 , Annapolis Junction , MD 21701 .
Focusing on community college programs designed to achieve multicultural climates and minority student success, this monograph provides profiles from documents in the ERIC database of such programs established in the 1990s by individual colleges or developed in partnerships with community, business, or other educational institutions. Introductory materials provide a conceptual framework for minority programs and present a synopsis of strategies described in the profiles. One-page descriptions are then provided of 21 programs focusing on students, including eight related to recruitment, six regarding retention, six related to student success, and two focusing on transfer. Next, descriptions are provided for faculty programs, including five related to recruitment, two focusing on development, and two on advancement. Five programs related to administrator advancement are then reviewed, and then five campus-wide multicultural efforts related to campus climate and assessment and program assessment are profiled. For all the sections, the profiles include the program title, host institution, and contact person, as well as descriptions of program philosophies and strategies. (KP).
Lawrence, Sandra M.; Tatum, Beverly D. Teaching in Transition: The impact of antiracist professional development on classroom practice. Teachers College Record. 1997 Sep; 99(1): 162-178
This article examines the impact of an antiracist professional development project on eighty-four suburban white teachers, all of whom are part of a voluntary desegregation program. Analysis of writing-sample data reveals that forty-eight of the eighty-four participants took antiracist actions as a result of their new learning about race and racism. In all, 142 specific actions were noted. The categories of action-taking related to three parameters of schooling: the quality of interpersonal interactions among school and community members, the curriculum, and the institution's policies regarding support services for students of color. The relationship between changes in the educators' racial identity development and their behaviors is discussed as are the elements that contributed to the antiracist educational outcomes.
Meacham, John A. Guiding Principles for Development and Implementation of Multicultural Courses. Journal of General Education. 1993; 42 (4):301-15.
Suggests ten guiding principles for the development of multicultural core courses, focusing on broad course content, faculty expertise, proper teaching methodology, faculty development, modest goals for students and faculty, acknowledging concerns about the courses, piloting and evaluating the courses, open course development, and publicity. ( MAB ).
Piland, William E. Multicultural Education in the Classroom. Community College Journal of Research and Practice. 1996 Jan; 20 (1): 49-63.
Describes a study of 50 California community college faculty investigating teaching methods used to provide multicultural education, multicultural issues included in courses, and the incorporation of multicultural content into class structures. Indicates that while faculty perceived the goal of multicultural education to be social reform, strategies utilized did not necessarily support that goal.
Rhoads, Robert, and Others. Multicultural Institutional Assessment Instrument. 1994: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington , DC .
This survey instrument was designed to generate dialogue about multicultural issues among college and university faculty and staff. It consists of 37 statements for which respondents rate the priority (high, average, low, not at all ) the statement has for the institution's multicultural efforts. The statements cover institutional structures, policies, and practices. Institutional structures relate to administrative or academic units or formalized operational roles performed by individuals, committees, or task forces. At the end of each of the three categories of items there is an opportunity to add additional statements that may have relevance to a particular institution. The instrument is not intended as a way of "measuring" an organizations' commitment to multiculturalism. ( MDM ).
Rothstein, Edward. The Subjective Underbelly of Hardheaded Math: Ethnomathematics. New York Times (Late New York Edition). Dec 20: B7-B8.
Current scholars argue that mathematics is not a purely objective detached pursuit but is influenced by politics and culture. The approach is seen in the ethnomathematics educational movement, which makes the argument that students from varying cultural backgrounds would learn math more easily by studying examples from other cultures or solving problems with multicultural references.
Schlossberg, Nancy K. Marginality and Mattering: Key Issues in Building Community. New Directions for Student Services . 1989 Dec; 18:5-15.
This article looks at the impact of inclusios and exclusion on students' experiences of higher education. The author defines marginality and mattering and suggests mechanisms for increasing students' sense of mattering in college.
Smikle, Joanne L. Practical Guide to Developing and Implementing Cultural Awareness Training for Faculty and Staff Development. Journal of Staff, Program, and Organizational Development. 1994 Sep; 12: 69-80.
This article describes an interactive workshop for faculty/staff development in diversity and cultural awareness. This article illustrates the mechanics of introductory awareness training which focuses on identifying institutional barriers, communication across cultures and action planning for diversity. The article details a workshop which focuses on practical applications of the major theories and principles of diversity.
Stevens, Joann. American Commitments: Democracy and Community Making. Liberal Education. 1994 Jun; 80(3): 40-43, 45-47.
The Association of American Colleges and Universities ? national initiative for college curriculum and faculty development, entitled "American Commitments: Diversity, Democracy, and Liberal Learning," is described; and a panel discussion of two central themes, which concern cultural pluralism in higher education, is summarized.
Tatum, Beverly . Talking About Race, Learning About Racism: The Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom. Harvard Educational Review. 1992 Mar; 62 (1): 1-24.
The inclusion of race-related content in college courses often generates emotional responses in students that range from guilt and shame to anger and despair. The discomfort associated with these emotions can lead students to resist the learning process. Based on her experience teaching a course on the psychology of racism and an application of racial identity development theory, Tatum identifies three major sources of student resistance to talking about race and learning about racism, as well as some strategies for overcoming this resistance.
Weiler, Kathleen. Friere and a Feminist Pedagogy of Difference. Harvard Educational Review. 1991; 61: 449-474.
In this chapter, Kathleen Weiler presents a feminist critique that challenges traditional Western knowledge systems. As an educator, Weiler sees this critique impacting both the theory and practice of education. She begins with a discussion of the liberatory pedagogy of Paulo Freire, and the profound importance of his work. She then offers a critical reflection of Freire' s work and, in particular, questions his assumption of a uniform experience of oppression, as well as his abstract goals for liberation. A feminist pedagogy, she claims, offers a more complex vision of liberatory pedagogy. Weiler traces the growth of feminist epistemology from the early consciousness-raising groups to current women's studies programs.
Books of Interest to Multicultural Faculty Developers
Adams, Maurianne; Bell , Lee Anne 1949; Griffin , Patricia S. (eds.). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A sourcebook. New York : Routledge; 1997.
This edited volume provides strong and detailed attention to three critical areas of teaching for diversity and social justice: theoretical foundations and frameworks that guide pedagogical practice, curriculum designs to address six social justice issues (racism, sexism, heterosexism, anti-Semitism, ableism, and classism), and an overview of intra- and interpersonal as well as group dynamics that are relevant to social justice education ("Knowing Ourselves as Instructors," "Knowing Our Students," and "Facilitating Social Justice Education Courses").
Fiol-Matta, Liza; Chamberlain, Mariam K. (eds.). Women of Color and the Multicultural Curriculum: Transforming the College Classroom. 1994: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 311 East 94 th St., New York, NY 10128.
This volume documents the Ford Foundation's Mainstreaming Minority Women's Studies program to encourage curriculum transformation by concentrating on the issues, learning, research, and achievements of women of color in the United States . Part 1 is on faculty development and begins with two essays: "Shifting Models, Creating Visions: Process and Pedagogy for Curriculum Transformation" (Karen E. Rowe); and "Understanding Outcomes of Curriculum Transformation" (Paula Ries). Part 1 then focuses on faculty development, with model syllabi drawn from the George Washington University ( District of Columbia ) and the University of California at Los Angeles . Each is accompanied by an introductory essay by the seminar facilitators. Part 2 presents undergraduate syllabi representative of the course revisions produced by the program's seminars. Two general essays in Part 2 are "Litmus Tests for Curriculum Transformation" (Liza Fiol-Matta) and " Reflections on Teaching Literature by American Women of Color" ( King-Kok Cheung). The remainder of Part 2 presents specific curricula in the following areas: American studies, art and architecture, Barnard College first-year seminars, history, literature, theology, writing, anthropology, economics, geography, political science, psychology, and sociology. Part 3 focuses on Puerto Rican studies. The essay, "An Interdisciplinary Guide for Research and Curriculum on Puerto Rican Women" (Edna Acosta-Belen et al.) introduces the 10-unit curriculum. (DB).
Garber, Linda (ed.). Tilting the Tower. New York : Routledge; 1994.
This book addresses the challenges and possibilities experienced by lesbian and other faculty members teaching queer subjects on college and university campuses. Separate sections address the classroom and institutional contexts. Some papers and author include: "On Being a Change Agent: Teacher as Text, Homophobia as Context" (Mary L. Mittler and Amy Blumenthal); "Classroom Coming Out Stories: Practical Strategies for Productive Self-Disclosure" (Kate Adams and Kim Emery); "Small-Group Pedagogy: Consciousness Raising in Conservative Times" (Estelle B. Freedman); "Heterosexual Teacher, Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Text: Teaching the Sexual Other(s)" (Ann Louise Keating); "The Very House of Difference: Toward a More Queerly Defined Multiculturalism" (Polly Pagenhart); "Creating a Nonhomophobic Atmosphere on a College Campus" (Nancy Stoller); and "Life on the Fault Line: Lesbian Resistance to the Anti-PC Debate" (Toni A.H. McNaron).
Mayberry, Katherine J. (ed.). Teaching What You're Not: Identity Politics in Higher Education. New York : New York University Press; 1996.
This edited volume looks at the intersection between course content and instructor identity. Four sections of papers address multiculturalist pedagogies, considerations regarding the students themselves, instructor identities and course content. Papers include: "No Middle Ground? Men Teaching Feminism" (J. Scott Johnson et al.); "Straight Teacher/Queer Classroom: Teaching as an Ally" (Barbara Scott Winkler); "Teaching in the Multiracial Classroom: Reconsidering "Benito Cereno" (Robert S. Levine); "Scratching Heads: The Importance of Sensitivity in the Analysis of "Other (s)" (Donna J. Watson); "Who Holds the Mirror? Creating ? The Consciousness of Others ? " (Mary Elizabeth Lanser); and "Teaching What the Truth Compels You to Teach: A Historian' s View" (Jacqueline Jones).
Morey, Ann I.; Kitano, Margie K. (eds.). Multicultural Course Transformation in Higher Education: A Broader Truth. Needham Heights , MA : Allyn & Bacon; 1997.
Papers in this volume suggest a framework for making course and curricular changes, along with specific examples and scenarios from a variety of disciplines. Some chapters and authors include: "A Rationale and Framework for Course Change" (Margie K. Kitano); "What a Course Will Look Like After Multicultural Change" (Margie K. Kitano); "Instructional Strategies" (Eleanor W. Lynch); "Assessment of Student Learning" (Rena B. Lewis); "Classroom Dynamics: Disclosing the Hidden Curriculum" (Terry Jones and Gale Auletta Young); "The Community College Curriculum" (Desna L. Wallin); "Organizational Change and Implementation Strategies for Multicultural Infusion" (Ann Intili Morey); and chapters addressing curricular change and instructional strategies in specific fields (English, mathematics, biological and environmental sciences, economics, nursing, teacher education).
Rosser, Sue V. (ed.). Teaching the Majority. New York : Teachers College Press, Athene Series; 1995.
This edited volume addresses curricular and pedagogical change techniques aimed at breaking the gender and race barriers in science and technology. The volume concludes with a 7 stage description of the change process in such disciplines provided by the editor. This process starts with assumptions of objectivity and value-free approaches to science and develops toward increased representation of women and people of color in scientific leadership, on-going dialogue about content amongst a diverse community of scientists and laypeople, and interdisciplinary approaches to problem solving.
Schoem, David; Frankel, Linda; Zuniga, Ximena; Lewis, Edith (eds.). Multicultural Teaching at the University. Westport , Connecticut : Praeger; 1993.
This book provides a collection of papers that address the enhancement of faculty teaching and learning in an increasingly interconnected multicultural society. Three interconnected dimensions of multicultural teaching are focused upon: content, process and discourse, and diversity of faculty and students. Some papers and authors include: "Teaching about Ethnic Identity and Intergroup Relations" (David Schoem); "Teaching With and About Conflict in the Classroom" (Ximena Zuniga and Mark A. Chesler); "A Circle of Learners: Teaching About Gender, Race, and Class" (Linda Frankel); "Waking Up to the World: A Multicultural Approach to Writing" (Ralph D. Story); and "Should and Can a White, Heterosexual, Middle-Class Man Teach Students About Social Inequality and Oppression? One Person ? s Experience and Reflections" (Thomas J. Gerschick); and "Constructing a Teaching Assistant Training Program with a Multicultural Emphasis" (David Schoem).
Wlodkowski, Raymond J. Diversity and Motivation: Culturally responsive teaching. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1995.
This book presents multicultural education literature within a motivational framework with an emphasis on ethnicity and international students. Four goals of motivational learning are described: establishing inclusion, developing attitude, enhancing meaning, and engendering competence. Chapters addressing each of these goals provide useful examples and scenarios that may be used in working with faculty. Resources sections include guidelines for teaching a multicultural or international classroom and worksheets for assessing student learning and structuring cooperative learning exercises.
Rita Dunn and Shirley A. Griggs. (1998). Multiculturalism and Learning Style: Teaching and Counseling Adolescents. Westport, CT: Praeger, pp. 281. (paperback).
A complete description of the learning styles of African-, Asian-, Euro-, Hispanic, and Native-American students is provided against a background of how learning styles change over time and by achievement, age, and gender.
Teaching for Diversity (CRLT Guide Book)
Laura L.B. Border and Nancy Van Note Chism, Editors. New Directions in Teaching and Learning , 1992, Volume 49
Adams , M. Cultural Inclusion in the American College Classroom.
The traditional college classroom has a distinct culture that often constrains the success of students from other cultural backgrounds. Traditional culture has remained unnoticed becau se the mismatch with student's culture is never identified, and there is a general absence of conscious cultural identity among European American students. The call for multiculturalism depends on faculty's acceptance and implementation, but it is difficu lt for faculty to see beyond their own acculturation. A college teacher's explicit and ongoing attention to the cultural assumptions behind many aspects of classroom teaching will facilitate the learning process for students from all cultural traditions. This does not necessarily mean dismantling of traditional teaching; rather, teachers could incorporate flexible, alternative teaching modes in order to engage the broad range of diverse, cultural derived orientations to learning.
Anderson, J.; Adams , M. Acknowledging the Learning Styles of Diverse Student Populations: Implications for Instructional Design.
Issues regarding teaching effectiveness and excellence are increasingly tied to issues of diversity; therefore, one should be examining the interplay of social and cultural diversity with learning styles, curricular content, and instructional styles. Effective teaching cannot be limited to delivery of information. Studies that have examined different groups' orientations to cultural values support the contention that non-traditional groups who share common conceptualizations about basic values, beliefs, and behaviors exhibit similar socialized differences and stylistic learning preferences. The authors use, as an example, Kolb's model of experiential learning to show how teachers can develop a multicultural teaching repertoire that takes into account cultural style differences. While identification of styles with particular social and cultural groups helps alert teachers to important differences, a full range of instructional strategies should be employed.
Border, L.; Chism, N. The Future is Now: A Call for Action and List of Resources.
The authors list programs and contact persons for "train-the-trainer" strategies for multicultural teaching. They also list print and video resources on multicultural teaching in higher education.
Collett, J.; Serrano, B. Stirring It Up: The Inclusive Classroom.
Looking at the experience of institutions where women and minorities have been either the sole constituency or the vast majority provides many lessons in academic success. The greater success of students in these institutions is due to common factors: a supportive atmosphere, respect for cultural identity, high expectations, positive role models, and vigilance against bias. Multicultural education on mixed campuses, on the other hand, is currently failing to address needs of many students. The worst problem is the resistance and inability of predominantly white male faculty to recognize and respect gender and cultural differences among students. In this article, the authors provide a model of cultural continua, with one axis reflecting a continuum of cultural experiences embedded in home culture at one end and mainstream culture at the other end. The cross-axis is a continuum of English proficiency. Understanding in which quadrant a student falls can help teachers adjust their instructional approaches to meet that student's needs. Faculty can also place themselves along the continua, to become aware of their own cultural embeddedness and move away from it to better communicate with students and other colleagues. The task of progressing to a truly multicultural curricula and classrooms requires institutional and personal transformation because diversity challenges the structure of the disciplines.
Maher, F.; Tetreault, M. Inside Feminist Classrooms: An Ethnographic Approach.
The authors describe two feminist classrooms where the instructors' and students' relationship to mastery, voice, authority, and positionality are explored. An understanding of these helped the teachers construct their alternative pedagogies. In the traditional classroom, teachers' pedagogical choices are the guiding theories and worldview of a particular discipline. However, feminist theorists, as well as postmodernists, argue that truth is gendered, raced, and classed. It is also dependent on context, including the context of the classroom. By addressing issues of mastery, voice, authority, and positionality, each teacher in the two feminist classrooms repositioned the relationships among herself, the students, and the material, away from herself as authority and toward learning as a function of complex interactions among teacher and student voices. These choices had different effects on different students. The authors conclude that feminist approaches to pedagogy provide alternative ways of attending to the multiplicity of student backgrounds and the constantly expanding set of perspectives to contend with and honor.
Sadker, M.; Sadker, D. Ensuring Equitable Participation in College Classes.
Interactive teaching, for all its benefits, has the potential for interjecting subtle bias into the college classroom. Teachers are more likely to interact with white male students than with female or minority students. Boys get more attention because they grab it. Teachers, however, are often unaware of the inequities. Informal segregation, through seating and group work patterns, for example, also intensifies inequitable participation. This is usually done by students, but a teacher rarely intervenes to integrate seating and group work, especially in higher education. Segregated patterns influence the distribution of teacher attention. The authors describe an equity training program for faculty that focused on eliminating inequitable instruction. Some of the strategies they recommend include: (1) objective coding - a frequency count of teacher-student interactions that takes into account race and gender of students whom the teacher calls upon, to see what the distribution of teacher's attention is; (2) increased wait time; (3) becoming an intentional teacher - engaging the silent students; (4) desegregation of student seating; and (5) use of teaching tactics such as shuffling name cards or moving around the room.
Schmitz, B.; Paul, P.; Greenberg, J. Creating Multicultural Classrooms: An Experience-Derived Faculty Development Program.
Campuses nationwide are struggling to find effective and appropriate responses to diversity in the classroom, with many clinging to the traditional and naïve assumptions that the classroom is a value-neutral space. Because of the differential rates of students' success in traditional classrooms, however, the issue of classroom climate is raised. The authors state that a multicultural classroom creates the potential for a fully effective learning climate. They describe the development of a program at the University of Maryland at College Park , which focused on the improvement of undergraduate women's education and of the classroom environment for all students. The authors discuss the assumptions, process, and key decision points that guided the development of their Classroom Climate Project. "Decision Points: included (1) articulating a program rationale, (2) choosing a theoretical framework for development programs, (3) deciding on the content of the development program, (4) deciding on a pedagogical approach and testing the model, (5) developing formats and scheduling, and (6) evaluating the success of the programs. Key components include a needs assessment, program support, resource development, faculty/TA development, and evaluation.
Vom Saal, D.; Jefferson, D.; Morrison, M. Improving the Climate: Eight Universities Meet the Challenges of Diversity.
This chapter presents a survey of eight universities' programs for helping faculty and teaching assistants meet the instructional needs brought about by changing campus populations. Each institution has made conscious choices about target groups to be covered in sessions designed to increase sensitivity. Most programs emphasize racism and sexism; other issues include homophobia, xenophobia, heterosexism, ableism, ageism, anti-Semitism, and classism. The eight institutions are: University of Colorado-Boulder, Harvard, University of Hawaii , University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, University of Missouri-Columbia , Ohio State University, Stanford, and University of Tennessee-Knoxville . The authors stress administrative support for multicultural programs, as the administrator's commitment inspires participation and interfertilization.